DrugFriday: Doxycycline

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DFDoxycycline

Doxycycline is an antibiotic belonging to the Tetracycline group of antibiotics

Mechanism of Action:

Doxycycline curbs bacterial growth by inhibiting RNA dependent protein synthesis in the bacteria.

Metabolism:

The main site of metabolism of Doxycycline is liver. Oral absorption of the drug is almost complete and 90% of the drug remains protein bound.

Elimination of the drug is both through urine and stools.

Indications and Dosage:

Dosage is usually 200 mg/ day given in 2 divided doses, most commonly orally due to good absorption. Intravenous route may be used when oral administration is not possible.

Uses:

  • Bacterial infections like Cholera, Brucellosis, Plague, Relapsing fever etc
  • Gram negative infections like E.Coli, Shigella, Klebsiella etc
  • Atypical pneumonia by organisms like Chlamydia, Mycoplasma
  • STDs such as Chlamydia, Gonorrhea,   Syphilis
  • Malaria
  • Ocular chlamydial infection
  • Bartonella infective endocarditis in combination with Gentamycin and Ceftriaxone

Adverse effects:

  • Diarrhea, enterocolitis, esophageal ulcers, dysphagia
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Urticaria

Use in pregnancy:

Category D (to be used only in life threatening emergency in absence of alternatives)

Use in lactation:

Enters breast-milk, hence not recommended

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